Hypermedia Glossary Of Genetic Terms
|Mitosis||The most frequent process of nuclear division (karyokinesis) in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell. The mitosis is divided into four (or five) phases: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. Mitosis and interphase make the cell cylcle.|
|Prophase||Strasburger (1884) originally introduced this term for the early stage of nuclear division before (Gk. pro) the chromosomes divide into two chromatids, but from about 1905, with the realization that the chromosomes are double from the beginning of nuclear division, he used the term in the now universally adopted sense of the stage of mitosis or of meiosis I or II before breakdown of the nuclear membrane.
condensation of chromosomes
longitudinal splitting of chromosomes visible
formation of spindle apparatus and fragmentation of nucleus membrane
|Metaphase||Strasburger (1884) originally introduced this term for the stage of nulear division after (Gk. meta) the chromosomes (ch) have divided into chromatids, but from about 1905, with the realization that the chromosomes are already double when nuclear division begins, he used the term in the now universally adopted sense of the stage in mitosis or meiosis I or II during which the chromosomes are aligned along the equatorial (metaphase) plate (ep) of the cell and kinetochores come into contact with the microtubuli of the spindle apparatus (s).
|Anaphase||Strasburger (1884) originally introduced this term for the stage of nuclear division when the contents of the nuclei were going back (Gk. ana) to their normal appearance, but from about 1905 he used the term in the now universally adopted sense of the stage of mitosis or of meiosis 1 or 2 when the daughter-chromosomes (or homologous chromosomes in meiosis 1) move towards opposite poles of the spindle.
|Telophase||The last stage (Gk. telos, end) of mitosis, or of either division of meiosis, during which the chromosomes become progressively thinner and more elongated (Heidenhain, 1894). Telophase is said to begin with the formation of a nuclear membrane round each group of daughter-chromosomes.
|Interphase||The period in the cell cycle when DNA is replicated in the nucleus; followed by mitosis.
|Cell cycle||The regular, visible sequence of mitosis and interphase, the events through which dividing cell pass.|
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