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Mutation The term which De Vries introduced into biological literature for an abrupt change of genotype which is inherited. Any permanent and heritable change in DNA sequence. Types of mutations include point mutations, deletions, insertions, and changes in number and structure of chromosomes. (Cf. polymorphism)
Related Terms:
Genotype The term proposed by Johannsen (1909) for the hereditary constitution of an individual, or of particular nuclei within its cells.
Inheritance Trait which is derived by an heir from an ancestor; transmission and reception by animal or plant generation. Trait acquired via biological heredity that passes from parent to offspring.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.
DNA sequence The relative order of base pairs, whether in a fragment of DNA, a gene, a chromosome, or an entire genome. See base sequence.
Deletion Loss of a segment of a chromosome as the genetical consequence of a transposition.
Insertion Addition of a DNA element into a chromosome.
Chromosome The term was proposed by Waldeyer (1888) for the individual threads within a cell nucleus (gk. chroma, colour; soma, body). The self-replicating genetic structures of cells containing the cellular DNA that bears in its nucleotide sequence the linear array of genes. In prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA is circular, and the entire genome is carried on one chromosome. Eukaryotic genomes consist of a number of chromosomes whose DNA is associated with different kinds of proteins.
Polymorphism Difference in DNA sequence among individuals. Applied to many situations ranging from genetic traits or disorders in a population to the variation in the sequence of DNA or proteins. Genetic variations occurring in more than 1% of a population would be considered useful polymorphisms for genetic linkage analysis. Compare mutation.

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Database: Birgid Schlindwein. Please contact me if you encounter any mistakes or if you are missing anything
© Dr. Birgid B. Schlindwein
last update of the database 10/01/2006