Hypermedia Glossary Of Genetic Terms
|Thymine (T)||Thymine is a pyrimidine base (nitrogenous base) and constituent of nulceotides and as such one member of the base pair A-T (adenine-thymine) in DNA.
|Pyrimidine||A nitrogen-containing, single-ring, basic compound (cf. nitrogenous base) that occurs in nucleic acids. The pyrimidines in DNA are cytosine and thymine. The pyrimidines in RNA are cytosine and uracil.
|Nitrogenous base||A nitrogen-containing molecule having the chemical properties of a base. See purine and pyrimidine.|
|Nucleotide||A subunit of DNA or RNA consisting of a nitrogenous base (purine in adenine and guanine, pyrimidine in thymine, or cytosine for DNA and uracil cytosine for RNA), a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). Depending on the sugar the nucleotides are called deoxyribonucleotides or ribonucleotides. Thousands of nucleotides are linked to form a DNA or RNA molecule. See also base pair.|
|Base pair (bp)||Two nitrogenous (purine or pyrimidine) bases (adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine) held together by weak hydrogen bonds. Two strands of DNA are held together in the shape of a double helix by the bonds between base pairs. The number of base pairs is often used as a measure of length of a DNA segment, eg 500 bp.|
|Adenine (A)||Adenin is a purine base (nitrogenous base) and constituent of nulceotides and as such one member of the base pair A-T (adenine-thymine) in DNA and A-U (adenine-uracil) in RNA.
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)||The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.|
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