Birgid Schlindwein's

Hypermedia Glossary Of Genetic Terms

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Genetic distance A way of measuring the amount of evolutionary divergence in two separated populations of a species by counting the number of allelic substitutions per locus that have cropped up in each population.
Related Terms:
Population A group of organisms of the same species relatively isolated from other groups of the same species. See deme.
Species A group of organisms belong to the same biological species, if they are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. However the biological test of a species is not always available, and so there is also a morphological species concept based on anatomical similarities.
Allele The term coined by Bateson and Saunders (1902) for characters which are alternative to one another in Mendelian inheritance (Gk. Allelon, one another; morphe, form).
Now the term allele is used for two or more alternative forms of a gene resulting in different gene products and thus different phenotypes. In a haploid set of chromosomes there is only one allele at its specific locus. Diploid organisms have 2 alleles at a given locus, i.e. a normal and a mutant allele. A single allele for each gene locus is inherited separately from each parent (e.g., at a locus for eye colour the allele might result in blue or brown eyes). An organism is homozygous for a gene if the alleles are identical, and heterozygous if they are different.
Locus The position of a gene on a chromosome or other chromosome markers; also, the DNA at that position. The use of the term locus is sometimes restricted to main regions of DNA that are expressed. Plural: loci. See gene expression.

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Programming: Herbert Maier
Database: Birgid Schlindwein. Please contact me if you encounter any mistakes or if you are missing anything
© Dr. Birgid B. Schlindwein
last update of the database 10/01/2006