Birgid Schlindwein's

Hypermedia Glossary Of Genetic Terms

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Arrayed library Individual primary recombinant clones (hosted in phage, cosmid, YAC, or other vector) that are placed in two-dimensional arrays in microtiter dishes. Each primary clone can be identified by the identity of the plate and the clone location (row and column) on that plate. Arrayed libraries of clones can be used for many applications, including screening for a specific gene or genomic region of interest as well as for physical mapping. Information gathered on individual clones from physical map analyses is entered into a relational database and used to construct physical and genetic linkage maps simultaneously; clone identifiers serve to interrelate the multilevel maps. Cf. library, genomic library.
Related Terms:
Phage A virus for which the natural host is a bacterial cell. Used as a vector for cloning segments of DNA.
Cosmid Artificially constructed cloning vector containing the cos gene of phage lambda. Cosmids can be packaged in lambda phageparticles for infection into Escherichia coli; this permits cloning of larger DNA fragments (up to 45 kb) than can be introduced into bacterial hosts in plasmid vectors.
Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) A vector used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kb); it is constructed from the telomeric, centromeric, and replication origin sequences needed for replication in yeast cells. The inserts can be much larger than those accepted by other vectors such as plasmids or cosmids. (Cf. cloning vector).
Cloning vector DNA molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment of appropriate size can be integrated without loss of the vectors capacity for self-replication; vectors introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where it is replicated autonomously in large quantities. Examples are plasmids, cosmids, and yeast artificial chromosomes; vectors are often recombinant molecules containing DNA sequences from several sources.
Physical map A map of the locations of identifiable landmarks on DNA (e.g., restriction enzyme cutting sites, genes), regardless of inheritance. Landmarks include restriction endonuclease recognition sites, DNA sequence and chromosomal bands. Distance is measured in base pairs. For the human genome, the lowest-resolution physical map is the banding patterns on the 24 different chromosomes; the highest-resolution map would be the complete nucleotide sequence of the chromosomes.
Linkage map A map of the relative positions of genetic chromosome, determined on the basis of how often the loci are inherited together. Distance is measured in centimorgans (cM).
Library An unordered collection of clones (i.e., cloned DNA from a particular organism), whose relationship to each other can be established by physical mapping. Compare genomic library, arrayed library.
Genomic library A collection of clones made from a set of randomly generated overlapping DNA fragments representing the entire genome of an organism. Compare library, arrayed library.

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Database: Birgid Schlindwein. Please contact me if you encounter any mistakes or if you are missing anything
© Dr. Birgid B. Schlindwein
last update of the database 10/01/2006